Salud Integral (Spanish Edition)
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We promote the digitisation of healthcare. Committed to the health of society. DKV Integralia Foundation. Because for us, nothing is more important than you. Because you'll get extensive cover. In addition, it is well documented that during the menopause women are at increased risk of obesity, due to changes in body composition. The menopause is associated with a higher percentage of body fat, especially in the abdominal area, which increases the risk of hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance, while and at the same time muscle mass and bone tissue are reduced 3.
The nutritional needs of menopausal women differ markedly from those of men and younger women 4. Our increasingly precise knowledge of the specific nutritional needs of the adult population, the growth of this population group and the resulting increase in medical spending associated with their chronic diseases have caused educational programmes, which were previously focused on children and younger stages of adulthood, to be now extended to this population in order to improve health status and quality of life, preventing or delaying the onset of chronic diseases and reducing the costs they involve 5.
It has been shown that diet is especially important in the prevention of the above-mentioned diseases, and that promoting a healthy, balanced diet by means of appropriate nutritional education is an effective treatment for menopausal women 6. One study has demonstrated a relationship between ongoing nutritional education and changes in health behaviour among different population groups 7,8.
Others have highlighted the effectiveness of applying preventive measures at an early stage to detect and control risk factors in postmenopausal women, by giving up smoking, taking regular physical exercise and improving diet and hygiene habits, among other. All these changes achieve substantial reductions in cardiovascular morbidity With the use of appropriate learning techniques and habit-changing methods dietary and nutritional experts can make a positive impact on dietary and lifestyle habits of adults, helping them achieve an optimal nutritional status and enjoy a healthy aging 7.
A review of the bibliography in this respect shows that very few studies on postmenopausal women have been made to determine the effectiveness of multidisciplinary programmes in raising awareness of nutritional issues and promoting physical exercise and healthy living habits. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a programme of nutritional education and intervention for postmenopausal women, focusing also on exercise and healthy living, improves diet quality, body composition, biochemical parameters and the lifestyle habits that are associated with pathologies among postmenopausal women.
All participants were informed about the study aims and procedures and gave their written informed consent to participate before beginning the intervention. In this longitudinal descriptive intervention study, the sample consisted of 96 postmenopausal women aged living in Granada southern Spain , who took part in a three-month university-study programme, which was adapted to their academic level they held a primary education diploma [ The recruitment of participants was performed by researchers from the Department of Physiology at the University Granada.
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The six-month intervention period was divided into two parts, first a hour course on health and nutrition, followed by a hour course of keep-fit exercises. This physical training programme took place two hours a week and was closely supervised and individualised. The intervention programme was adapted to the individual pace of each subject and to the participants' different situations. Each workout included 15 minutes warm-up based on different types of motion exercises joint mobility and stretching, followed by 35 minutes of exercise working the main content session, which varies depending on the day.
The session ended with a 10 minute cool down through stretching exercises and relaxation.
Muscular strength endurance, balance activities and aerobic nature was exercised on Wednesday, while aerobic exercises and coordination through circuit activities were carried out on Friday. The design of the program was conducted by specialists in the field of exercise equipment belonging to researcher. Exercise sessions were led by graduates in Science Physical Activity. We worked with groups of about 20 women the sample will be divided into five working groups organized on the basis of prior sunivel fitness.
An initial evaluation of food intake, anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters and lifestyle was performed. When these first results were obtained, and upon completion of the course, the second part of the intervention began, in which a personalised report was prepared for each woman participating in the study and guidelines were provided for a more healthy diet and lifestyle, based on standard recommendations for postmenopausal women. Food consumption was assessed by a h recall method in which participants were interviewed and asked to recall all foods consumed during the preceding 48 hours Data recorded concerned type of food, amount consumed, method of preparation and ingredients used.
Note was taken of the recipes, condiments, fats or oils used and the brands consumed. In all cases, data were obtained by the same trained researcher, in order to reduce inter-examiner variations. The questionnaire was based on open-ended questions and photographs were used as a reference for portion size Scores ranging from were assigned to all components. Thus, the total score assigned ranged , with higher scores indicating greater adhesion to the Mediterranean diet pattern. Blood was collected from each subject after hour fasting and placed in heparinised tubes.
The validity of this instrument has been reported elsewhere Repeated measures of analysis of variance ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc method were used to compare the differences with respect to the changes observed in the two assessments. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine relationships between the variables.
ISBN 13: 9789508613141
For smokers and non-smokers, standardised effect size statistics were estimated in all comparisons. Cohen's d and its exact confidence interval were used for parametric QoL variables. Subjects' sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits are shown in table I. The women's average age was Among them, Only 1. The largest group The energy intake, macronutrient intake and MDS before and after the interventions are shown in table II.
After this nutrition education programme, the MDS remained unchanged.
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After the intervention, no significant differences were observed in any of these parameters. The anthropometric and body composition characteristics of the study participants are shown in table II. No significant differences were observed in weight, BMI, body fat kg , lean mass kg , body fat percentage or lean mass percentage. As shown in table III , the amount of saturated fat in smokers was significantly lower after the intervention. In addition, the percentage of kilocalories provided by polyunsaturated fat compared to total kilocalories was significantly higher among the non-smokers before the intervention, but there was no difference in this respect following the intervention Table III.
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These findings lead us to conclude that the fat quality parameter in the female smokers was significantly enhanced by the intervention. However, the intervention had no impact on adhesion to the Mediterranean diet, irrespective of whether the women smoked or not. Regarding biochemical parameters, before the intervention triglycerides, TC and LDLC were significantly lower in non-smokers, but these values were similar in both groups after the intervention.
Regarding body composition, muscle mass in non-smokers had increased by the end of the study. Initially, there were more overweight women among smokers, but the obesity rate was higher among non-smokers. However, after the education programme, the number of obese women had decreased in both groups.