The Science of False Memory: An Integrative Approach (Oxford Psychology Series)

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These hit and false alarms rates were in turn used to calculate the bias-free sensitivity index d ', and the bias index c according to signal detection theory MacMillan and Creelman, Therefore, d ' can be treated here as a proxy for memory performance, with larger values of d ' corresponding to better memory.

In order to control for the effects of musicianship, all ANOVA analyses reported for Experiment 1 were performed with musical training in years as a covariate. Next, d ' data for each participant in each target condition were submitted to a One-Way repeated measures ANOVA, with the within-subjects factor of Target Note high vs.

Figure 2A presents the means and SE s for the d 's as a function of target note. These results provide evidence for both the congruency and distinctiveness accounts, with expectancy affecting memory for tones by privileging processing of items that are schema-congruent as well as items that are schema-incongruent 1.

To our knowledge, no previous studies have demonstrated that both congruency and distinctiveness can be simultaneously operative in memory; therefore, this constitutes a novel finding in the field of memory. Figure 2. Error bars depict the standard error of the mean. In order to test the hypothesis that highly expected targets would be falsely remembered, false alarm rates for each participant in each target condition were submitted to a One-Way repeated measures ANOVA, again employing the factor of Target Note.

This result confirms an important prediction of the congruency account—that tonal schemata encourage listeners to reconstruct what they heard with schema-congruent tones, leading to an elevated false alarm rate for the highly expected target. These data are consistent with past work in false memory Brainerd and Reyna, , and represent one of the first reports of false memory effects in a musical context see also Curtis and Bharucha, , and, notably, the only report specifically assessing highly-learned, acculturated music.

Figure 2C presents the means and SE s for this effect. This result is consistent with the results from the false alarms analysis, with more liberal bias leading to higher false alarms for high expectancy targets. Overall, these findings support the idea that listeners' expectancies for melodies, in this case, formed on the basis of perceiving a strong tonality, will influence subsequent memory for the components i. What is intriguing is that the impact of tonally-driven expectancy formation was multi-faceted, with listeners demonstrating better memory for tones that are strongly consistent with the perceived tonality i.

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For both effects, however, the critical aspect of processing leading to these memory effects involves the formation of a robust representation of tonality by which expectancies can be generated. Recognition of this central component leads naturally to the question of what would happen to expectancy effects on memory if the tonal representation was not so robust. Experiments 2 and 3 address this question. Assuming that the memory differences observed in Experiment 1 were indeed the result of expectancies generated by the perceived tonality of the melodies, then if listeners heard sequences that were less robust in producing tonal expectancies the memory differences would be correspondingly influenced.

One straightforward method of manipulating the strength of listeners' tonal representations is to employ melodic contexts in a minor tonality rather than a major one.

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Previous work has shown that listeners' cognitive representations of the minor tonality is weaker than that of the major tonality Krumhansl et al. As an example, Vuvan and Schmuckler found that listeners were able to generate highly accurate images of a major tonality based on a cue tone. In contrast, listeners' auditory images of a minor tonality were dramatically less robust, indicating that such contexts are significantly less psychologically stable.

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Within the current paradigm, employing minor melodic contexts should serve to decrease the fidelity of the tonal schema, thereby weakening the effects of tonality-based expectancies on memory performance. These participants had an average of 6. The apparatus and procedure for this experiment were identical to that of Experiment 1.

The only difference between the two studies involved the stimuli for this experiment, with these melodies now presenting a minor key context, as opposed to a major key. To create the minor key stimuli, the melodies from Experiment 1 were altered by changing specific tones within each melody to be consistent with a minor tonal hierarchy see Table 1 , without altering the contour.

The changed tones were never target tones. The high expectancy target D, pitch class 7 remained the same across the two experiments see Table 1. Examples of these melodies can be seen in Figure 3 ; all melodies are available in Supplementary material. Figure 3. Examples of experimental stimuli for Experiment 2.

To ensure that the alterations to these melodies did, in fact, reliably modify the tonality, the Krumhansl-Schmuckler key-finding algorithm Krumhansl, was applied to each melody. The second highest key correlation for each melody was most often G major, then B flat major, and then E flat major, which are all highly tonally related to G minor see Krumhansl, As in Experiment 1, d ' and c values were calculated based on hit correct detection of the target when present and false alarm incorrect indication of the target when it was absent rates.

Thus, in contrast to Experiment 1, the weaker tonal representations of the minor keys failed to influence memory performance, presumably due to less robust expectancy generation in a minor key this point will be returned to in the general discussion. Figure 4. As expected, weakening the tonality of the melodic context by switching from major to minor led to a disruption of the expectancy-based memory effects observed in Experiment 1.

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Specifically, although differential expectancy for the three targets tones failed to influence d ', there continued to be an effect of expectancy on false alarm rates for the targets. Admittedly, the pattern in this study was somewhat more complex, with both high and moderate expectancy targets producing increased false alarm rates, relative to low expectancy targets, whereas only high expectancy targets led to increased false alarms in Experiment 1. One speculative explanation for this finding is that the strong major tonal context in Experiment 1 induced a more differentiated expectancy gradient, with the high expectancy event in the current study clearly distinguishable in its perceived expectancy than the moderate and low expectancy note.

In contrast, the minor tonality might have produced a more generalized distinction between diatonic and non-diatonic tones, but not as strong a differentiation between tones at the top levels of the hierarchy i.

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In this regard it is intriguing to note that the classic tonal hierarchy ratings of Krumhansl and Kessler actually show a decrease in perceived goodness of fit for pitch class 7 the high expectancy tone in this study within a minor key, relative to its perceived fit in a major context. Such a pattern would be consistent with less differentiation between this pitch class and the moderate expectancy pitch class pitch class 8 in a minor key. Regardless of any specific explanation for this result, it seems clear that, in broad strokes, the false alarm analyses agree with the previous findings.

And most importantly, these results replicate the intriguingly novel finding of a false memory effect for musical stimuli, based on perceived expectancy for these stimuli. Figure 4C presents the means and SE s for this effect. This result is consistent with the results from the false alarms analysis, with more liberal bias leading to higher false alarms for high and medium expectancy targets.

Theoretically, these findings confirm the viability of the congruence account developed earlier, in which differential memory is shown for schema-congruent events, relative to schema-incongruent events. Although not immediately obvious, such a result is understandable with reference to the fact that the minor tonality actually has multiple forms, with these multiple versions of the minor psychologically accessible to listeners at some level see Vuvan et al. Because the low expectancy event in this study does occur in one of the three minor forms specifically, the ascending component of the melodic minor it could be considered to be not as truly distinctive in a minor tonal context. As such, it would no longer pop put from its tonal background. As an aside, recognizing the more ambiguous tonal function of this tone in a minor context arising from these different forms does not undermine the distinction between the degrees of expectancy for the moderate and low expectancy tones. Although the low expectancy tone does appear in one of the three minor forms, the moderate expectancy tone occurs in all three minor tonality variants.

Accordingly, this note remains, on a theoretical and psychological level, more expected than the low expectancy event. In sum, the current experiment replicated the findings of Experiment 1 in terms of showing an impact of expectancy generation on memory for individuals in a general sense, and in demonstrating the existence of a false memory effect for musical stimuli. Extending these previous findings, this study showed that manipulating, and specifically weakening, the theoretical and psychological stability of the reference schema i.

Extending this latter finding makes an intriguing prediction: If the melodic context were to be totally devoid of tonal structure, then there should be no evidence of tonal expectancies on memory. Experiment 3 examined this final prediction. The goal of this experiment was to provide a final test of the impact of expectancy generation on musical memory.

In this case, the strategy employed was a logical extension of the previous experiment in which a weakening of the tonal structure of the melodic context ultimately led to weaker effects of tonality on memory. Specifically, this experiment removed all tonal structure whatsoever from the melodic contexts.

If the memory differences previously observed were truly a result of expectancy generation driven by the formation of a tonal schema, then removing tonality should have the corresponding effect of removing differential memory performance. To examine this idea, all stimulus melodies were composed to be atonal, that is, to not suggest any major or minor tonality to the listener. The only difference in the current experiment from the previous two studies involved the stimulus melodies. To create the atonal stimuli for Experiment 3, the melodies from Experiment 1 were altered by modifying non-target tones by one semitone, while preserving the contour pattern of ups and downs in pitch of the original melody; examples of these melodies can be seen in Figure 5 , with all melodies shown in Supplementary material.

As in Experiments 1 and 2, the Krumhansl-Schmuckler key-finding algorithm Krumhansl, was used to ensure that the melodies were indeed truly atonal, and did not provide any unintended tonal information. Figure 5. Examples of experimental stimuli for Experiment 3. As a subsidiary analysis, care was taken to ensure that there was no instantiation of tonality through the differential frequency of occurrence or durations of the 12 pitch classes across the melodic corpus. Previous work Smith and Schmuckler, found that a tonal center can be instantiated simply by having one of the pitch classes occur significantly more frequently than the remaining pitch classes.

The d ' and c values for each participant in each target condition were calculated in the same manner as in the previously experiments. Again, to control for the effects of musicianship, all ANOVA analyses reported for Experiment 3 were performed with musical training in years as a covariate. Thus, in keeping with our earlier predictions, eliminating the tonal schema from the melodies eliminated the congruency and distinctiveness effects on memory for melody tones.

In other words, removing the theoretical and psychological hierarchies of stability produced melodies that failed to generate differential expectancies for tones; without any tonality-based expectancy there was no corresponding effect on note memory. Figure 6. One possible explanation for this result would be that this tone was sounded longer than the other target tones in the context, and thus became slightly more expected based on differential duration.

Alternatively, it might be that this differential performance arises through more overall differential experience with the various frequencies of occurrence of the 12 pitch classes based on a general result of musical acculturation. Some fascinating evidence over the years Simpson and Huron, ; Ben-Haim et al. As such, this hypothesis fails to account for the current findings.

Figure 6C presents the means and SE s for this effect. Thus, it is clear that participants struggled with the atonal melodies, supporting the idea that lack of tonal structure prevented participants from using typical memory strategies such as availability or distinctiveness in this experiment. The current series of experiments demonstrated the influence of melodic expectancies on memory for individual musical tones.

Specifically, Experiment 1 demonstrated that when a tonal schema was strongly evoked by a major melodic context, memory was enhanced for both schematically congruent and incongruent tones, with congruent tones also falsely remembered when they were not actually present in a melody. Experiments 2 and 3 extended this initial result by systematically reducing the strength of this tonal schema through the use of a minor tonality Experiment 2 and an atonal context Experiment 3 , with this manipulation leading to a progressive weakening of the memory effects observed in the initial experiment.

Theoretically, these findings support the operation of two different processes affecting memory for two categories of tones within these melodic contexts.