UN CRIME EST-IL FACILE ? (Ha ! Ha ! Ha ! t. 12) (French Edition)
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Although some regarded the orthography highly, it was generally not well received. That same year Haitian Creole was elevated in status by the Act of 18 September For example, the hyphen - is no longer used, nor is the apostrophe. The Constitution of upgraded Haitian Creole to a national language alongside French.
The Constitution of names both Haitian Creole and French as the official languages, but recognizes Haitian Creole as the only language that all Haitians hold in common. Even without government recognition, by the end of the s, there were already literary texts written in Haitian Creole such as Oswald Durand 's Choucoune and Georges Sylvain 's Cric? Since the s, many educators, writers, and activists have written literature in Haitian Creole.
It was the first time a collection of Haitian Creole poetry was published in both Haitian Creole and English. Although both modern standard French and Haitian Creole are official languages in Haiti , standard French is often considered the high language and Haitian Creole as the low language in the diglossic relationship of these two languages in society. There is a large population in Haiti that speaks only Haitian Creole, whether under formal or informal conditions:.
In most schools, French is still the preferred language for teaching. Generally speaking, Haitian Creole is more used in public schools,  as that is where most children of ordinary families who speak Haitian Creole attend school. Historically, the education system has been French-dominant. Except the children of elites, many had to drop out of school because learning French was very challenging to them and they had a hard time to follow up. After the earthquake in , basic education became free and more accessible to the monolingual masses. Haitian Creole has a phonemic orthography with highly regular spelling, except for proper nouns and foreign words.
The first technical orthography for Haitian Creole was developed in by H. Ormonde McConnell. It was later revised with the help of Frank Laubach, resulting in the creation of what is known as the McConnell—Laubach orthography.
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The McConnell—Laubach orthography received substantial criticism from members of the Haitian elite. Haitian scholar Charles Pressoir critiqued the McConnell—Laubach orthography for its lack of codified front rounded vowels , which are typically used only by francophone elites.
The creation of the orthography was essentially an articulation of the language ideologies of those involved and brought out political and social tensions between competing groups. A large portion of this tension lay in the ideology held by many that the French language is superior, which led to resentment of the language by some Haitians and an admiration for it from others.
When Haiti was still a colony of France, edicts by the French government were often written in a French-lexicon creole and read aloud to the slave population. For example: Li ale travay nan maten lit.
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Haitian Creole grammar is highly analytical: for example, verbs are not inflected for tense or person, and there is no grammatical gender , which means that adjectives and articles are not inflected according to the noun. The primary word order is subject—verb—object as it is in French and English. Many grammatical features, particularly the pluralization of nouns and indication of possession, are indicated by appending certain markers, like yo , to the main word. There has been a debate going on for some years as to whether these markers are affixes or clitics , and if punctuation such as the hyphen should be used to connect them to the word.
Although the language's vocabulary has many words related to their French-language cognates, its sentence structure is like that of the West African Fon language. There are six pronouns: first, second, and third person, each in both singular, and plural; all are of French etymological origin. Definite nouns are made plural when followed by the word yo ; indefinite plural nouns are unmarked.
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Possession is indicated by placing the possessor or possessive pronoun after the item possessed. In northern Haiti, a or an is placed before the possessive pronoun. Possession does not indicate definiteness "my friend" as opposed to "a friend of mine" , and possessive constructions are often followed by a definite article. Yon is derived from the French il y a un "there is a". Both are used only with singular nouns, and are placed before the noun:. In Haitian Creole, the definite article has five forms,  : 28 and it is placed after the noun it modifies.
The final syllable of the preceding word determines which form the definite article takes. If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by a nasal vowel , it becomes lan :. If the last sound is an oral vowel and is preceded by an oral consonant , it becomes a :. If a word ends in mi , mou , ni , nou , or a nasal vowel , it becomes an :. If the last sound is a nasal consonant , it becomes nan , but may also be lan :. As in English, it may be used as a demonstrative , except that it is placed after the noun that it qualifies.
It is often followed by a or yo in order to mark number : sa a "this here" or "that there" :. Many verbs in Haitian Creole are the same spoken words as the French infinitive , but there is no conjugation in the language; the verbs have one form only, and changes in tense , mood , and aspect are indicated by the use of markers :.
The verb se pronounced similarly to the English word "say" is used to link a subject with a predicate nominative :.
The subject sa or li can sometimes be omitted with se : [ clarification needed ]. Therefore, malad means both "sick" and " to be sick ":. The verb "to have" is genyen , often shortened to gen. The verb genyen or gen also means "there is" or "there are":. The Haitian Creole word for "to know" and "to know how" is konnen , which is often shortened to konn. It has a broad range of meanings, as it is one of the most common verbs used in idiomatic phrases. The verb kapab or shortened to ka , kap or kab means "to be able to do something ". It refers to both "capability" and "availability":.
There is no conjugation in Haitian Creole. In the present non-progressive tense, one just uses the basic verb form for stative verbs :. When the basic form of action verbs is used without any verb markers , it is generally understood as referring to the past:. Manje means both "food" and "to eat", as manger does in Canadian French [ citation needed ] ; m ap manje bon manje means "I am eating good food". For other tenses , special "tense marker" words are placed before the verb.
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The basic ones are:. Simple past or past perfect :. Past progressive :. Present progressive :. Also, ap manje can mean "will eat" depending on the context of the sentence:.
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A verb mood marker is ta , corresponding to English "would" and equivalent to the French conditional tense:. The word pa comes before a verb and any tense markers to negate it:. Most of the lexicon of Creole is derived from French, with significant changes in pronunciation and morphology ; often the French definite article was retained as part of the noun. For example, the French definite article la in la lune "the moon" was incorporated into the Creole noun for moon: lalin. However, the language also inherited many words of different origins, among them Wolof , Fon , Kongo , English, Spanish, Portuguese , Taino and Arabic.
Haitian Creole creates and borrows new words to describe new or old concepts and realities. There are many other Haitian Creole terms for specific tones of skin including grimo , bren , roz , and mawon.
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Some Haitians consider such labels as offensive because of their association with color discrimination and the Haitian class system, while others use the terms freely. Proverbs play a central role in traditional Haitian culture and Haitian Creole speakers make frequent use of them as well as of other metaphors. Haitian Creole is used widely among Haitians who have relocated to other countries, particularly the United States and Canada.
To reach out to the large Haitian population, government agencies have produced various public service announcements, school-parent communications, and other materials in Haitian Creole. In the Boston area, the Boston subway system and area hospitals and medical offices post announcements in Haitian Creole as well as English.